ESKATOLOGI ISLAM SHIA: ESKATOLOGI DUA DIMENSI | SHIA ISLAMIC ESCHATOLOGY: A TWO DIMENSIONAL ESCHATOLOGY

  • Justin L Wejak Dosen senior untuk kajian Indonesia pada Asian Centre, univ. Melbourne, Australia

Abstract

Abstract This paper explains an Islamic eschatology according to Shia, and suggests that []Shia eschatology always has two dimensions – religion and politics – and the two dimensions are inseperable. Discussion surrounding Shia eschatology in this paper is particularly focused on the Mahdism concept and the figure of Mahdi. This paper is thus not intended to make a generalisation about ‘Islamic eschatology’ as if there were only one type of Islam with a single understanding of eschatology. Most Indonesian Muslims are of Sunni type of Islam, and may not share the viewpoint of Shia at all concerning eschatology. The key purpose of this paper is rather to explore one version of understanding of eschatology within Islam in order to provoke further reflection on other perspectives on eschatology. Keywords: Eschatology, Islam, Politics, Religion, Shia, Sunni, Prophet Muhammad, Mahdism, Mahdi Abstrak Tulisan ini menjelaskan sebuah eskatologi Islam menurut Shia, dan mengusulkan bahwa versi eskatologi Shia selalu memiliki dua dimensi – agama dan politik – dan keduanya tak terpisahkan. Pembahasan mengenai eskatologi Shia dalam tulisan ini khususnya berfokus pada konsep Mahdisme dan figur Mahdi, menurut versi Islam Shia. Maka tulisan ini tak dimaksudkan untuk membuat generalisasi mengenai ‘eskatologi Islam’ seolah ada hanya satu jenis Islam dengan pemahaman tunggal mengenai eskatologi. Kebanyakan kaum Muslim Indonesian adalah penganut Sunni, dan barangkali samasekali tak sependapat dengan pandangan Shia tentang eskatologi. Tujuan utama tulisan ini sebetulnya untuk menjelaskan satu versi pemahaman eskatologi dalam Islam agar memprovokasi refleksi lebih lanjut tentang perspektif-perspektif lain terkait eskatologi. Kata-Kata Kunci: Eskatologi, Islam, Politik, Agama, Shia, Sunni, Nabi Muhammad, Mahdisme, Mahdi.

Author Biography

Justin L Wejak, Dosen senior untuk kajian Indonesia pada Asian Centre, univ. Melbourne, Australia
Justin L. Wejak was born and raised in Lembata, an eastern island of Indonesia. He studied philosophy in Flores, theology and anthropology in Melbourne, and is currently a PhD student in history at The University of Melbourne. He is writing on "Catholicism and Communism in Indonesia in the1960s: An Analysis of the Catholic Position on the Coup Attempt of 1 October 1965 and the Ensuing Political Violence of 1965-66." staf pengajar dalam Program Studi Indonesia dan Asia di The University of Melbourne, Australia. Pada tahun 2017 ia menyelesaikan disertasi doktoralnya berjudul: ‘Secular, Religious and Supernatural: An Eastern Indonesian Catholic Experience of Fear (Autoethnographic Reflections on the Reading of a New Order-Era Propaganda Text)’. S2-nya dalam bidang Antropologi juga diselesaikannya di universitas yang sama tempat ia mengajar sekarang. Ia meraih S1 Filsafat di STFK Ledalero. Ia berminat meneliti bidang etnografi ketakutan, identitas, dan kekerasan.

References

Akhavi, Shahrough. 1980. Religion and Politics in Contemporary Iran. Albany,

NY: State University of New York Press.

Alexander, Yonah dan Milton Hoenig. 2008. The New Iranian Leadership:

Ahmadinejad, Terrorism, Nuclear Ambition, and the Middle East.

Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International.

Arjomand, Said Amir. 1996. “The Consolidation of Theology: Absence of

the Imam and Transition from Chiliasm to Law in Shiism”. Dalam

The Journal of Religion 76 (4), hlm. 458-471.

Aslan, Reza. 2005. No God but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of

Islam. New York: Random House.

Berkey, Jonathan Porter. 2003. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society

in the Near East, 600-1800. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Boyer, Paul. 2008. “The Foreordained Future: Apocalypse Thought in the

Abrahamic Religions”. The Hedgehog Review (Spring,): hlm. 61-75.

Chittick, William C. 1987. “Eschatology”. Dalam Islamic Spirituality:

Foundations, disunting S. H. Nasr. New York: Crossroads, 378-409.

Chomsky, Noam. 2007. Interventions. San Francisco, CA: City Lights

Books.

Cook, David. 2002. Studies in Muslim Apocalyptic. Princeton, NJ: Darwin

Press.

Doi, Abdur-Rahman Ibrahim. 1987. “Sunnism”. Dalam Islamic

Spirituality: Foundations, disunting S. H. Nasr. New York:

Crossroad, hlm. 147-159.

Esposito, John L. 2010. The Future of Islam. New York: Oxford University

Press.

Esposito, John L. 1983. Voices of Resurgent Islam. New York: Oxford

University Press.

Esposito, John L., dan John O. Vo II. 1996. Islam and Democracy. New

York: Oxford University Press.

Furnish, Timothy R. 2005. Holiest Wars: Islamic Mahdis, Their Jihads, and

Osama bin Laden. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, dan John L. Esposito. 2000. Muslims on the

Americanization Path? New York: Oxford University Press?

Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, dan Jane Idleman Smith. 1994. Muslim

Communities in North America. Albany, NY: State University of New

York Press.

Hasan, Asma Gull. 2000. American Muslims. The New Generation. New

York: Continumm.

Hassan, Farzana. 2008. Prophecy and the Fundamentalist Quest: An Integrative

Study of Christian and Muslim Apocalyptic Religion. Jefferson, NC:

McFarland.

Hussain, Jassim M. 1982. The Occultation of the Twelfth Imam: A Historical

Background. London: Muhammadi Trust.

------------. 2018. “Radikalisme”. Jurnal Ledalero. Vol. 17, No. 7 (Juni 2018),

hlm. 3-132.

Kymlicka, Will. 1996. Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority

Rights. New York: Oxford University Press.

Madelung, Wilferd. 1986. “Al-Mahdi”. Dalam The Encyclopedia of Islam. A

New Edition, disunting C. E. Bosworth, E. V. Donzel, B. Lewis dan

C. H. Pellat. Vol. V. Leiden: E. J. Brill, hlm. 1230-1238.

Momen, Moojan. 1985. An Introduction to Shi’i Islam. The History and

Doctrines of Twelver Shi’ism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Mutahhari, Murtada dan Baqir al-Sadr. 1979. The Awaited Saviour.

Karachi: Islamic Seminary Publications.

Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza. 2007. The Shia Revival: How Conflicts Within Islam

Will Shape the Future. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Qur’an. 1983. The Holy Qur’an: A Translation. Terjemahan A. Y. Ali.

Lahore: Sh. M. Ashraf.

Ramadan, Tariq. 2007. In the Footsteps of the Prophet. Lessons from the Life of

Muhammad. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rapoport, David C. 1993. “Comparing Militant Fundamentalist

Movements and Groups,” dalam Fundamentalism and the State:

Remaking Polities, Economics and Militance, ed. M.E. Marty dan R.S.

Appleby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, hlm. 429-461.

Rippin, Andrew. 1996. “The Commerce of Eschatology”. The Qur’an as

Text, disunting S. Wild. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 125-135.

Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein. 1981. Islamic Messianism: The Idea of

Mahdi in Twelve Shi’ism. Albany, NY: State University of New York.

Sadr, Sayyed Sadrudin. 1994. AL-MAHDI (A.S.). Tehran: NABA

Organization.

Skocpol, Theda. 1994. Social Revolutions in the Modern World. New York:

Cambridge University Press.

Smith, Jane Idleman. 2007. Muslims, Christians and the Challenge of Interfaith

Dialogue. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sutton, Philip, dan Stephen Vertigans. 2005. Resurgent Islam: A Sociological

Approach. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.

Tucker, William F. 2008. Mahdis and Millenarians: Shiite Extremists in Early

Muslim Iraq. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Walbridge, Linda. 1979. Without Forgetting the Imam: Lebanese Shi’ism in an

American Community. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.

Watt, W. Montgomery. 1961. Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman. London:

Oxford University Press.

Published
2018-12-02
Section
Artikel